Example \(Sp(4,R)\)ΒΆ

Let us find all the \(K\backslash G/B\) elements of \(Sp(2,\mathbb R)\):

atlas> G:=Sp(4,R)
Value: connected split real group with Lie algebra 'sp(4,R)'
atlas> print_KGB (G)
kgbsize: 11
Base grading: [11].
 0:  0  [n,n]    1   2     4   5  (0,0)#0 e
 1:  0  [n,n]    0   3     4   6  (1,1)#0 e
 2:  0  [c,n]    2   0     *   5  (0,1)#0 e
 3:  0  [c,n]    3   1     *   6  (1,0)#0 e
 4:  1  [r,C]    4   9     *   *  (0,0) 1 1^e
 5:  1  [C,r]    7   5     *   *  (0,0) 2 2^e
 6:  1  [C,r]    8   6     *   *  (1,0) 2 2^e
 7:  2  [C,n]    5   8     *  10  (0,0)#2 1x2^e
 8:  2  [C,n]    6   7     *  10  (0,1)#2 1x2^e
 9:  2  [n,C]    9   4    10   *  (0,0)#1 2x1^e
10:  3  [r,r]   10  10     *   *  (0,0)#3 1^2x1^e
atlas>

The first four elements form the “distinguished fiber” \(\mathcal F\). That is, those who, map to the (conjugacy class of) the identity involution in the Weyl group. The 0 in the last collumn next to the # sign tells us that these \(K\backslash G/B\) elements are in the Compact Cartan and, up to conjugacy by \(K\), parametrize the Borel subgroups containing the Compact Cartan. So, these parametrize the discrete series of \(Sp(4, \mathbb R)\) with a fixed infinitesimal character. That is, if we fix \(x_b\),

\[x=wx_b \rightarrow \text{discete series with Harish-Chandra parameter} \ w\rho.\]

There are a couple of commands that will give you discrete series:

atlas> whattype discrete_series ?
Overloaded instances of 'discrete_series'
  (KGBElt,ratvec)->Param
  (RealForm,ratvec)->Param
atlas>

atlas> whattype all_discrete_series ?
Overloaded instances of 'all_discrete_series'
  (RealForm,ratvec)->[Param]
atlas>

The first command deals with a single principal series. We want the last command that will list all discrete series with a fixed infinitesimal character. First let us setup a show function:

atlas> set show([Param] params)=void:for p in params do prints(p) od
Added definition [6] of show: ([Param]->)
atlas>

Now we can list all the discrete series of \(G\):

atlas> set ds=all_discrete_series (G,rho(G))
Variable ds: [Param]
atlas> show (ds)
final parameter(x=0,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1)
final parameter(x=1,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1)
final parameter(x=2,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1)
final parameter(x=3,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1)
atlas>

Again, as in the example of \(SL(2,R)\), these all have the same lambda=rho and nu=0. The only difference is the element x. In order to identify them with the usual parameters that we know we do the following. We first fix a base element \(x_b\). This determines an identity component of \(K\) and we set this as our \(K\)

atlas> set x_b=KGB(G,0)
Variable x_b: KGBElt
atlas> K_0(x_b)
Value: compact connected real group with Lie algebra 'su(2).u(1)'
atlas>
atlas> set K=K_0(x_b)
Variable K: RealForm
atlas>

which is the standard maximal compact subgroup of \(Sp(4,R)\). Now when we ask for the simple roots for this element we get:

atlas> simple_roots (K)
Value:
| 1 |
| 1 |

atlas>

Which is not the canonical set of simple roots. So we try different elements until we get the simple roots we want:

atlas> x_b:=KGB(G,1)
Value: KGB element #1
atlas> simple_roots (K)
Value:
| 1 |
| 1 |

atlas> simple_roots (K_0(x_b))
Value:
| 1 |
| 1 |

atlas> x_b:=KGB(G,2)
Value: KGB element #2
atlas> simple_roots (K_0(x_b))
Value:
|  1 |
| -1 |

atlas>

So we fix x_b as our base element. And now with respect to this parameter we find the Harish-Chandra parameter for each of the other discrete series

atlas> void: for p in ds do prints(p," ", hc_parameter(p,x_b)) od
final parameter(x=0,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1) [  2, -1 ]/1
final parameter(x=1,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1) [  1, -2 ]/1
final parameter(x=2,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1) [ 2, 1 ]/1
final parameter(x=3,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1) [ -1, -2 ]/1
atlas>

So, this is a way to go from atlas parameters to the Harish-Chandra parameters expressed, in the usual way, with respect to the fixed base element. The one corresponding to x=2 is the holomorphic discrete series, the one for x=3 is the antiholomorphic one and the other two are the large discrete series.

To chek this we do the following

atlas> void: for p in ds do prints(p," ", hc_parameter(p,x_b)," ", status_texts(x(p))) od
final parameter(x=0,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1) [  2, -1 ]/1 ["nc","nc"]
final parameter(x=1,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1) [  1, -2 ]/1 ["nc","nc"]
final parameter(x=2,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1) [ 2, 1 ]/1 ["ic","nc"]
final parameter(x=3,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1) [ -1, -2 ]/1 ["ic","nc"]
atlas>

So, this gives us more information about each representation. Namely, the status of the simple roots for the corresponding x.

The software always chooses, for the quasisplit group, x=0 to be the large Borel; that is, both of the simple roots are non compact. In this case the simple roots are \(e_1 + e_2\) and \(2e_2\). Similarly, for x=1. So these correspond to the large discrete series. And since we chose the base element to be x=2 and the simple root for \(K\) is \([1,-1]\), then [2,1] is the usual parameter for this choice of simple roots. The first simple root is compact. so this corresponds to the holomorphic case.

Now to go the other way we use:

atlas> whattype discrete_series ?
Overloaded instances of 'discrete_series'
  (KGBElt,ratvec)->Param
  (RealForm,ratvec)->Param
  atlas>

  atlas> discrete_series (G, [2,1])
  Value: final parameter(x=0,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1)
  atlas> discrete_series (G, [2,-1])
  Value: final parameter(x=2,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1)
  atlas>

Or we could use the other format using the KGBElt:

atlas> set p=discrete_series (x_b,[2,1])
Variable p: Param
atlas> p
Value: final parameter(x=2,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1)
atlas> p:=discrete_series (x_b,[1,-2])
Value: final parameter(x=0,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1)
atlas>
atlas> p:=discrete_series (x_b,[2,-1])
Value: final parameter(x=0,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1)

So, the software conjugates the Harish-Chandra parameter [1,-2] to [2,1] and conjugates, via the reflection on the long simple root, the base element to x=0.

To find the elements in W that do this we do the following:

atlas> set W=generate_W (G)
Variable W: [(RootDatum,[int])]
atlas> #W
Value: 8
atlas> void: for w in W do prints(w) od
simply connected root datum of Lie type 'C2'[]
simply connected root datum of Lie type 'C2'[0]
simply connected root datum of Lie type 'C2'[1]
simply connected root datum of Lie type 'C2'[1,0]
simply connected root datum of Lie type 'C2'[0,1]
simply connected root datum of Lie type 'C2'[0,1,0]
simply connected root datum of Lie type 'C2'[1,0,1]
simply connected root datum of Lie type 'C2'[1,0,1,0]

This is a list of pairs root datum, w. Now to find out how these elements act on x_b=2 we do:

atlas> void: for w in W do prints(cross(w,x_b)) od
KGB element #2
KGB element #2
KGB element #0
KGB element #0
KGB element #1
KGB element #1
KGB element #3
KGB element #3
atlas>

This lists the cross action of each element of \(W\) on x_b=2. The Id takes x=2 to itself, the simple reflection by root [0], which is the compact root, also fixes it. The other simple root, [1] sends x=2 to x=0 and so on.

Note that the action of \(W\) on this set is transitive and the stabilizer is \(W_K\)

Also, by contrast notice the action on the element x=10:

atlas> void: for w in W do prints(cross(w,KGB(G,10))) od
KGB element #10
KGB element #10
KGB element #10
KGB element #10
KGB element #10
KGB element #10
KGB element #10
KGB element #10
atlas>

The action is trivial there. There is only one \(K\backslash G/B\) element and the stabilizer is the entire Weyl group.

Now, recall the command to write representations in the usual way:

atlas> void: for p in ds do prints(p," ", hc_parameter(p,x_b)) od
final parameter(x=0,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1) [  2, -1 ]/1
final parameter(x=1,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1) [  1, -2 ]/1
final parameter(x=2,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1) [ 2, 1 ]/1
final parameter(x=3,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1) [ -1, -2 ]/1

and suppose we use x=0 as our base point. Then we get a more strange set of parameters because the compact root is now [1,1] instead of the usual one. So, the Harish-Chandrra parameters are not what we expect:

atlas> void: for p in ds do prints(p," ", hc_parameter(p,KGB(G,0))) od
final parameter(x=0,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1) [ 2, 1 ]/1
final parameter(x=1,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1) [ 1, 2 ]/1
final parameter(x=2,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1) [  2, -1 ]/1
final parameter(x=3,lambda=[2,1]/1,nu=[0,0]/1) [ -1,  2 ]/1
atlas>